Spine

Conditions

Anatomy of the Spine

Anatomy of the Spine
The spinal column is the body’s main support structure. Its thirty-three bones, called vertebrae, are divided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal.

Cervical Radiculopathy

Cervical Radiculopathy
This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the cervical spine. Because these nerves travel to the shoulders, arms and hands, an injury in the cervical spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Cervical radiculopathy may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the cervical spinal column.

Coccydynia

Coccydynia
This condition is an inflammation of the tip of the tailbone, called the coccyx. It causes pain and tenderness between the buttocks.

Compression Fractures of the Spine

Compression Fractures of the Spine
This is a collapse of vertebral bone. It can affect one or more vertebrae. Compression fractures typically develop in your mid or lower back. This can change the shape of your spine.

Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative Disc Disease
This condition is a weakening of one or more vertebral discs, which normally act as a cushion between the vertebrae. This condition can develop as a natural part of the aging process, but it may also result from injury to the back.

Facet Joint Syndrome

Facet Joint Syndrome
This condition is a deterioration of the facet joints, which help stabilize the spine and limit excessive motion. The facet joints are lined with cartilage and are surrounded by a lubricating capsule that enables the vertebrae to bend and twist.

Herniated Disc (Cervical)

Herniated Disc (Cervical)
This condition is a rupture of one of the vertebral discs in your neck. A herniated disc can allow disc material to press harmfully against the spinal nerves.

Herniated Discs

Herniated Discs
A herniated disc is a common injury that can affect any part of the spine. A herniated disc can cause severe pain and other problems in the arms or legs.

Kyphosis

Kyphosis
This condition is a deformity of the spine. With it, your vertebrae change from a cylindrical shape to a wedge shape. Your spine may begin to curve forward. Eventually, this gives your upper back a rounded appearance.

Lumbar Radiculopathy (Sciatica)

Lumbar Radiculopathy (Sciatica)
This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Because these nerves travel to the hips, buttocks, legs and feet, an injury in the lumbar spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Sciatica may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the lumbar spinal column.

Metastatic Cancer of the Spine

Metastatic Cancer of the Spine
This form of cancer develops in or near the spinal cord or within the vertebrae. It can spread through multiple levels of the spine. It can lead to a wide range of serious complications.

Muscle Strain of the Upper Back (Trapezius Strain)

Muscle Strain of the Upper Back (Trapezius Strain)
This common injury is a stretching or tearing of the trapezius. This large muscle group spans the upper back, shoulders and neck. These muscles are commonly called the “trap” muscles.

Myelopathy

Myelopathy
This is a problem that affects your spinal cord. It happens when something presses harmfully against it. Your spinal cord is the main nerve pathway between your brain and your body. Pressure on it can cause problems throughout your body.

Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis
If you have an infection in a bone, you have osteomyelitis. It’s a serious condition that can cause part of your bone to die. And, the infection can spread to other parts of your body.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis
As you get older, your bones may get weaker. This is called “osteoporosis.” Weak bones are more likely to break. Osteoporosis can be a problem for anyone, but it is more common in women.

Post-Laminectomy Syndrome

Post-Laminectomy Syndrome
This condition, also called “failed back syndrome,” is a type of chronic pain. It can develop in some people after spine surgery.

Scoliosis

Scoliosis
This condition is an abnormal curvature of the spine. It most often develops in early childhood, just before a child reaches puberty.

Spinal Epidural Abscess

Spinal Epidural Abscess
This mass is a collection of pus that forms in the spinal canal. It forms between the spinal cord (or nerve roots) and the vertebral bones. In the cervical and thoracic regions of the spine, it can press against the spinal cord. In the lumbar region, it can press against the nerve roots. A spinal epidural abscess can cause problems throughout the body.

Spinal Infection

Spinal Infection
This is an infection most often caused by staphylococcus or E. coli bacteria. It may involve the bones, discs and soft tissues of your spine. It can start in one area of your spine and spread to other parts. It can cause pain and other problems.

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal Stenosis
The spinal column contains open spaces that create passageways for the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of (or an intrusion into) these openings. This can cause a compression of the nerves. Spinal stenosis most commonly affects the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine.

Spinal Stenosis (Cervical)

Spinal Stenosis (Cervical)
This condition is a narrowing of the spinal canal that results from the degeneration of bones, discs, or joints in the cervical spine.

Spinal Stenosis (Thoracic)

Spinal Stenosis (Thoracic)
This condition affects the thoracic spine between the neck and the lower back. It is a narrowing of the spinal canal that results from degeneration of bones in the spine, disc herniation, or thickening of the tissues that surround the spinal cord.

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis
This condition occurs when a lumbar vertebra slips out of place. It slides forward, distorting the shape of your spine. This may compress the nerves in the spinal canal. The nerves that exit the foramen (open spaces on the sides of your vertebrae) may also be compressed. These compressed nerves can cause pain and other problems.

Spondylosis

Spondylosis
This condition is a degeneration of the spine that can affect the spine at any level, resulting in pain and discomfort that can grow worse over time.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
This is a label given to a group of disorders. In these disorders, nerves or blood vessels are compressed in the space between your collarbone and the underlying rib. This space is called the “thoracic outlet.”

Where Lower Back Pain Begins

Where Lower Back Pain Begins
Lower back pain is a common problem that severely impacts the quality of your life. It can limit your ability to be active. It can cause you to miss work. Many different causes may lead to pain in your lower back.

Where Neck Pain Begins

Where Neck Pain Begins
Neck pain is a common problem that severely impacts the quality of your life. It can limit your ability to be active. It can cause you to miss work. Many different causes may lead to pain in your neck.

Whiplash

Whiplash
This is a common neck injury. It happens when your neck jerks back and forth quickly and violently. Your spine bends past its normal range of motion. This can injure the vertebrae of your cervical spine. It can damage the supporting ligaments and muscles in your neck.

Non-Surgical Procedures

Anesthesia (Local)

Anesthesia (Local)
Local anesthesia makes a part of the body numb to prevent a patient from feeling pain during a medical procedure. Local anesthesia is commonly used for many minor outpatient surgeries.

Bone Density Scan (DXA or DEXA)

Bone Density Scan (DXA or DEXA)
This is a type of x-ray that measures your bone density. Your doctor may recommend it if you’re at risk for osteoporosis (that’s a weakening of your bones). This scan is a quick and easy way to check for signs of bone density loss.

Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection

Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication through an opening in the sacrum. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. The injection takes only a few minutes to complete.

Celiac Plexus Block (Percutaneous Approach)

Celiac Plexus Block (Percutaneous Approach)
This procedure temporarily disrupts the nerves of the celiac plexus. These nerves branch away from your spine. They connect to the organs in your abdomen. Pain signals caused by conditions such as pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer travel through these nerves on the way to your brain. A celiac plexus block can relieve your pain.

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)
This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or radiculopathy can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Neurotomy

Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Neurotomy
During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your neck. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn’t respond to medications or to physical therapy.

Cervical Selective Nerve Root Block

Cervical Selective Nerve Root Block
This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. It can be used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and radiculopathy.

Cervical Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

Cervical Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve neck, shoulder and arm pain related to compression of a nerve root in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

Cold Laser Therapy

Cold Laser Therapy
This technique uses laser light to promote the healing of injured tissues. It may be used to replace invasive procedures such as injections and surgery. In some cases, it may reduce the need for physical therapy.

Costovertebral Joint Injection

Costovertebral Joint Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of pain-relieving medication into one or more costovertebral joints. These are the joints that form the connections between the ribs and the vertebrae.

CT Scan (Computed Tomography; CAT Scan)

CT Scan (Computed Tomography; CAT Scan)
This scan lets doctors see inside your body by taking x-ray images from many angles. These are combined to show clear cross-section slices of parts of your body. A CT scan shows much more than a typical x-ray. It can show cancer and other problems.

Discography (Lumbar)

Discography (Lumbar)
This procedure, also called a “discogram,” helps your doctor find painful spinal discs. It can show the source of pain in your back. To see how it works, let’s watch a discography done in the lumbar spine.

Electromyography (EMG)

Electromyography (EMG)
This is a test of your muscles and nerves. It usually has two parts. One is a nerve conduction study. This measures how well electricity moves through your nerves. The second part is a needle electromyogram. It records the electrical signals your muscles make when you move them. The results can help your doctor find problems linked to certain disorders or conditions.

Epiduroscopy

Epiduroscopy
In this minimally-invasive procedure, a flexible instrument containing a tiny camera, called an epiduroscope, is used to diagnose the cause of pain in the lower spine and legs, likely from sciatica. During the procedure, the surgeon may also administer medication to treat the pain.

Facet Joint Injections

Facet Joint Injections
The facet joints, found on both sides of the back of the spine, can become painfully irritated or inflamed. A facet joint injection may help diagnose the source of a patient’s pain. It can also relieve pain and inflammation.

Fascia Iliaca Block

Fascia Iliaca Block
This procedure is performed to block pain signals from traveling along the femoral nerve from the thigh or knee to the brain. It is commonly used to alleviate pain that can appear after certain leg surgeries such as total knee replacement.

Fluoroscopic Guided Piriformis Injection

Fluoroscopic Guided Piriformis Injection
This injection procedure is performed to diagnose and relieve the pain of piriformis syndrome, an irritation of the sciatic nerve caused by a contraction of the piriformis muscle in the buttocks.

Hip Joint Injection

Hip Joint Injection
If you have pain in your hip, your doctor may inject medicine into your hip joint. It can help your doctor find where your pain is coming from. It can also make your hip feel better.

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve low back and radiating leg pain. Steroid medication can reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by spinal conditions.

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)
This injection procedure is performed to relieve low back and radiating leg pain. Steroid medication can reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by spinal conditions.

Lumbar Sympathetic Block

Lumbar Sympathetic Block
This procedure is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your lower back. It helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to these nerves. Usually, a series of injections is needed to treat a problem.

Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. This procedure is performed to relieve pain in the lower back and pain that radiates from the back to the legs. The injection takes only a few minutes to complete.

Medial Branch Block

Medial Branch Block
This diagnostic procedure is performed to identify a painful facet joint. The facet joints are the joints between the vertebrae in the spine. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist.

Medial Branch Block (Cervical)

Medial Branch Block (Cervical)
This is an injection of numbing medicine that bathes the medial branch nerves. These nerves are attached to the facet joints of the spine. Disease or injury of these joints can cause pain in the medial branch nerves. This pain may travel through the neck, shoulders, upper back and head. A medial branch block can help your physician find the source of your pain. It may also provide temporary pain relief.

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
This scan lets doctors see inside your body without using radiation. Instead, MRIs use magnets and radio waves. An MRI shows clear views of your soft tissues. It can show cancer and other problems.

Myelography (Myelogram)

Myelography (Myelogram)
This outpatient procedure is a diagnostic examination of the spine. It allows the physician to identify problems involving the spine, the spinal cord and the nerve roots.

Nerve Conduction Study (NCS)

Nerve Conduction Study (NCS)
This noninvasive, outpatient exam is used to measure how quickly nerves conduct electrical signals through the body. NCS is a valuable technique for diagnosing nerve damage. If damage exists, NCS can help a physician find its source.

Osteoporosis Screening

Osteoporosis Screening
As you get older, your risk for osteoporosis increases. That’s a disease that makes your bones thin and weak. A screening procedure called a “bone density test” shows if you have osteoporosis. It shows if you are likely to develop it. Or, if you are being treated for osteoporosis, it can show if your treatment is working.

Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA)

Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA)
This is a method of pain control. With it, you push a button attached to an IV pump device to give yourself a dose of pain relief medication. PCEA is often used to ease the pain of childbirth. It can also be helpful in the days immediately after some surgical procedures.

PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography)

PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography)
This scan lets doctors see inside your body. A PET scan is different from an MRI or a CT scan, because it shows how your organs and systems are working. It can give doctors a clear view of some types of cancer cells, which show up brightly on a PET scan. It can also help doctors diagnose other disorders throughout your body.

PRP Therapy (Overview)

PRP Therapy (Overview)
Platelet rich plasma therapy can help injured joints and other problems. It uses parts of your own blood to reduce pain and speed up healing.

PRP Therapy (Overview) (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy (Overview) (AcCELLerated Biologics)
Platelet rich plasma therapy can help injured joints and other problems. It uses parts of your own blood to reduce pain and speed up healing.

RACZ Caudal Neurolysis

RACZ Caudal Neurolysis
This injection, generally performed as an outpatient procedure under local anesthesia, relieves low back and leg pain most often caused by scarring from a prior back surgery. The procedure is performed with the patient lying face down with a cushion placed under the stomach.

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Cervical Facets

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Cervical Facets
During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your neck. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn’t respond to medications or to physical therapy.

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Lumbar Facets

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Lumbar Facets
During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your lower back. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn’t respond to medications or to physical therapy.

Sacroiliac Joint Steroid Injection

Sacroiliac Joint Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve pain caused by arthritis in the sacroiliac joint where the spine and hip bone meet. The steroid medication can reduce swelling and inflammation in the joint.

Stellate Ganglion Block

Stellate Ganglion Block
A stellate ganglion nerve block is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your neck. This helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to the nerves. Treatment may require a series of injections.

Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection

Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection performed to relieve pain in the upper back.

Surgical Procedures

Absorbable Antibiotic Bead Treatment for Osteomyelitis

Absorbable Antibiotic Bead Treatment for Osteomyelitis
If you have an infected bone, your doctor may treat it with medicated beads. These are placed into the bone to send medicine directly into the infection. And that’s helpful, because your bone may not have good blood flow. Lack of blood flow to the bone can keep antibiotics taken by mouth or by IV from reaching the infection. Here’s how medicated beads are implanted.

ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
ALIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (with bone graft and metal plate)

ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (with bone graft and metal plate)
ALIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (with bone graft and pedicle screws)

ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (with bone graft and pedicle screws)
ALIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

Anesthesia (Conscious Sedation)

Anesthesia (Conscious Sedation)
Conscious sedation is a type of anesthesia that makes the patient feel very relaxed. It reduces painful sensations and the awareness of pain. It is not intended to put the patient to sleep, and will wear off quickly after a procedure. Conscious sedation is commonly used for simple procedures that can be completed quickly.

Anesthesia (Epidural)

Anesthesia (Epidural)
Epidural anesthesia is a numbing medication injected through a catheter placed in the epidural space of the spine. It can be used to numb the abdomen, groin, legs and feet. It does not put the patient to sleep, but blocks painful sensations during or after a medical procedure.

Anesthesia (General)

Anesthesia (General)
General anesthesia makes a person unconscious. People call this “put under” or “put to sleep.” But it isn’t the same as regular sleep. A person given general anesthesia cannot feel pain. And, the person won’t remember what happens during a medical procedure.

Anesthesia (Local)

Anesthesia (Local)
Local anesthesia makes a part of the body numb to prevent a patient from feeling pain during a medical procedure. Local anesthesia is commonly used for many minor outpatient surgeries.

Anesthesia (Lumbar Puncture, Spinal Anesthesia)

Anesthesia (Lumbar Puncture, Spinal Anesthesia)
This numbing medication is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid through a fine needle placed near the nerve roots of the lower spine. It can be used to numb the abdomen, groin, legs and feet. It does not put the patient to sleep, but blocks painful sensations during or after a medical procedure.

Anesthesia (Monitored Anesthesia Care, MAC)

Anesthesia (Monitored Anesthesia Care, MAC)
Monitored anesthesia care is a type of anesthesia that makes the patient feel very relaxed. It reduces painful sensations and the awareness of pain. It is not intended to put the patient to sleep, and will wear off quickly after a procedure. Monitored anesthesia care is commonly used for simple procedures that can be completed quickly.

Anesthesia (Overview)

Anesthesia (Overview)
Anesthesia is the use of medications to block the pain of a medical procedure. The medications that block this pain are called anesthetics. Different forms of anesthesia are used to prepare patients for different types of procedures.

Anesthesia (Regional)

Anesthesia (Regional)
Regional anesthesia makes an area of the body numb to prevent the patient from feeling pain during or after a medical procedure. It can completely block sensation to a large area of the body. Regional anesthesia does not put a patient to sleep, but it is commonly used along with sedation. It may also be used with general anesthesia.

Anterior Cervical Corpectomy

Anterior Cervical Corpectomy
This surgery relieves pressure on the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. It involves the removal of bone and discs from your cervical spine, followed by a fusion.

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)
This surgery removes a herniated or degenerative vertebral disc in your neck and replaces it with a bone graft. This can relieve painful pressure on spinal nerves.

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (Intervertebral Spacer)

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (Intervertebral Spacer)
This surgery removes a herniated or diseased disc and relieves neck and radiating arm pain caused by parts of the disc pressing on nerve roots.

Anterior Endoscopic Cervical Microdiscectomy

Anterior Endoscopic Cervical Microdiscectomy
This minimally-invasive surgical procedure, performed through a tiny hole in the neck, removes the bulging portion of a herniated cervical disc. It is designed to relieve neck and radiating arm pain caused by herniated disc material pressing on nerve roots.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement
This procedure replaces a degenerative or damaged spinal disc with an implant designed to preserve motion in your neck. This procedure can relieve the pain of compressed nerves in the cervical spine.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (Mobi-C®)

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (Mobi-C®)
This procedure replaces a degenerative or damaged spinal disc with an implant designed to preserve motion in your neck. This procedure can relieve the pain of compressed nerves in the cervical spine.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (PCM)

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (PCM)
(Caution: Investigational Device)
A goal of this procedure is to relieve the pain caused by pinched nerves due to a damaged disc in the cervical spine. The diseased or damaged disc will be replaced with a specialized implant.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (Prestige®)

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (Prestige®)
This procedure replaces a diseased or damaged spinal disc with a specialized implant designed to preserve motion in the neck. This procedure can relieve the pain of pinched nerves in the cervical spine.

AxiaLIF® (Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion)

AxiaLIF® (Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion)
In this minimally-invasive procedure, performed under general anesthesia, portions of a diseased or damaged disc in the lumbar spine are removed and a device is implanted to secure one or more vertebrae to the sacrum. It is typically used to treat back pain caused by a degenerative disc between the lowest lumbar vertebra (called L5) and the top of the sacrum (called S1).

Cervical Laminaplasty (Cervical Laminoplasty)

Cervical Laminaplasty (Cervical Laminoplasty)
This surgical procedure creates more space for the spinal cord and nerve roots to relieve the painful pressure of spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal that can result from arthritis.

Cervical Laminaplasty (no hardware)

Cervical Laminaplasty (no hardware)
This procedure is used to treat a painfully restricted spinal canal in the neck. The procedure creates more space for the spinal cord and nerve roots, immediately relieving pressure. The technique is often called an “open door laminaplasty,” because the back of the vertebrae is made to swing open like a door.

Cervical Posterior Foraminotomy

Cervical Posterior Foraminotomy
This surgery creates more space for a compressed spinal nerve in your neck. The procedure relieves painful pressure caused by a herniated or degenerative disc.

Disc Biacuplasty (TransDiscal™ System)

Disc Biacuplasty (TransDiscal™ System)
This minimally-invasive procedure, which takes about 30 minutes to perform, uses radiofrequency probes to treat chronic back pain.

Disc Replacement, Lumbar (Charité™)

Disc Replacement, Lumbar (Charité™)
This surgical procedure replaces a damaged or diseased disc in the lumbar spine with an artificial disc that restores the natural alignment of the spine. Unlike fusion surgery, which causes the vertebrae above and below the problem disc to grow together into a single bone, the artificial disc preserves spine motion at that level.

Disc Replacement, Lumbar (Maverick™)

Disc Replacement, Lumbar (Maverick™)
This surgical procedure replaces a damaged or diseased disc in the lumbar spine with an artificial disc that restores the natural alignment of the spine. Unlike fusion surgery, which causes the vertebrae above and below the problem disc to grow together into a single bone, the artificial disc preserves spine motion at that level.

Endoscopic-Assisted Lumbar Interbody Fusion (Transforaminal)

Endoscopic-Assisted Lumbar Interbody Fusion (Transforaminal)
During this minimally invasive procedure, the surgeon replaces a damaged disc in the lumbar spine with an expandable implant. The surgeon also implants hardware to stabilize the spine. This procedure relieves nerve root compression, which is a common cause of pain in the back and legs.

Facet Fixation (US Spine™)

Facet Fixation (US Spine™)
This procedure is used to implant specialized bolts through the facet joints of two or more vertebrae, locking the vertebrae together and stabilizing the spine. The US Spine Facet Fixation System™ uses smaller incisions than a traditional open fusion surgery, allowing for less tissue damage, reduced blood loss, and a shorter recovery time.

ILIF: Interlaminar Lumbar Instrumented Fusion

ILIF: Interlaminar Lumbar Instrumented Fusion
In this minimally-invasive procedure, the spinal nerve roots are decompressed and a metal device is implanted to stabilize the spine and help relieve back problems from conditions such as spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degenerative arthritis.

Interspinous Process Decompression (X STOP®)

Interspinous Process Decompression (X STOP®)
In this minimally-invasive outpatient procedure, usually performed under local anesthesia and sedation, a titanium alloy device is implanted to relieve back pain and numbness in the legs caused by lumbar spinal stenosis. This procedure is an alternative to laminectomy or spinal fusion.

Interspinous Stabilization (Coflex™)

Interspinous Stabilization (Coflex™)
In this surgical procedure, a titanium alloy device is implanted to relieve back pain or numbness in the legs or buttocks caused by spinal stenosis. This procedure is a non-fusion, minimally-invasive alternative to laminectomy with or without spinal fusion.

Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET)

Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET)
This is a treatment for chronic pain in your lower back. The physician uses heat to reduce the sensitivity of nerve fibers in a spinal disc. More than one disc may be treated.

Intralaminar Lumbar Microendoscopic Discectomy

Intralaminar Lumbar Microendoscopic Discectomy
This minimally-invasive procedure, performed through a tube called a cannula, is designed to relieve the pain caused by herniated disc tissue pressing against nerve roots in the spine. The surgery is performed under general anesthesia, and the patient is allowed to leave the hospital the same day.

Intraoperative Monitoring (IOM) of the Nerves

Intraoperative Monitoring (IOM) of the Nerves
This technique is used during complex surgical procedures, especially those that involve manipulation of the spinal cord. IOM allows a neurotechnologist to monitor the health of the nervous system in real time during surgery. This greatly reduces the risk of surgery-related nerve damage.

Intrathecal Pump Implant

Intrathecal Pump Implant
An intrathecal pump relieves chronic pain. It uses small amounts of medicine applied directly to the intrathecal space (the area surrounding the spinal cord) to prevent pain signals from being perceived by the brain. Pump candidates include people for whom conservative treatments have failed and surgery is not likely to help.

Intrathecal Pump Implant (Medtronic)

Intrathecal Pump Implant (Medtronic)
An intrathecal pump relieves chronic pain. It uses small amounts of medicine applied directly to the intrathecal space (the area surrounding the spinal cord) to prevent pain signals from being perceived by the brain. Pump candidates include people for whom conservative treatments have failed and surgery is not likely to help.

Kyphoplasty (Balloon Vertebroplasty)

Kyphoplasty (Balloon Vertebroplasty)
This minimally-invasive procedure repairs a vertebral compression fracture. It helps restore the spine’s natural shape. Some patients experience rapid pain relief after the procedure.

Laminectomy

Laminectomy
This procedure relieves pressure on the nerve roots in the spine. It is most commonly performed to relieve the pain of stenosis. This is a narrowing of the spinal canal that is often caused by the formation of bony growths that can press against the nerve roots. The surgeon may treat one or more vertebrae.

Laminectomy (Cervical)

Laminectomy (Cervical)
This procedure removes a section of bone from the rear of one or more vertebrae to relieve the painful and disabling pressure of stenosis.

Laminectomy (Cervical) with Fusion

Laminectomy (Cervical) with Fusion
This procedure removes a section of bone from the rear of one or more vertebrae to relieve the painful and disabling pressure of stenosis. The spine is then stabilized with rods and screws.

Lumbar Corpectomy

Lumbar Corpectomy
This procedure is performed to relieve the pain caused when diseased or damaged vertebrae bone blocks and pinches nerve roots. It also corrects spinal column deformities. During this procedure, the patient is positioned on his right side. The surgery is performed through the patient’s left side.

Lumbar Disc Microsurgery

Lumbar Disc Microsurgery
This minimally-invasive procedure relieves pressure on nerve roots caused by a herniated disc. It can eliminate the pain of sciatica.

Lumbar Discoscopic Discectomy

Lumbar Discoscopic Discectomy
This minimally-invasive procedure is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. This surgery is performed through a small tubular device under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

Lumbar Inter-Body Fusion (IBF)

Lumbar Inter-Body Fusion (IBF)
Designed to be a less invasive way to fuse the spine, IBF is generally used for the treatment of back pain caused by degenerative disc disease. When the procedure is performed from the front (anterior) of the spine, a minimally-invasive endoscopic technique may be used. The surgery in the following animation is performed through an anterior approach.

Lumbar Pedicle Screw Fixation (CD Horizon® Sextant®)

Lumbar Pedicle Screw Fixation (CD Horizon® Sextant®)
This minimally-invasive procedure uses special guides and fluoroscopic imaging to allow a surgeon to precisely implant stabilizing screws and rods in the spine while minimizing damage to muscles, tendons and other soft tissue in the back.

Lumbar Spinous Process Plating (CD Horizon® SPIRE™)

Lumbar Spinous Process Plating (CD Horizon® SPIRE™)
In this minimally-invasive procedure, a metal device is implanted to stabilize the spine and help relieve back problems from conditions such as spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degenerative arthritis. This procedure is often performed in addition to spinal fixation with pedicle screws and rods.

Micro Endoscopic Discectomy

Micro Endoscopic Discectomy
This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. This surgery is usually performed on an outpatient basis, which allows the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

Micro Endoscopic Posterior Cervical Discectomy

Micro Endoscopic Posterior Cervical Discectomy
This surgery removes bone and/or portions of a herniated or diseased disc to relieve neck and radiating arm pain caused by parts of the disc pressing on nerve roots.

Minimally-Invasive Lumbar Microdecompression

Minimally-Invasive Lumbar Microdecompression
This minimally invasive procedure is used to remove overgrown vertebral bone and soft tissue to relieve the compression of nerve roots in the lumbar spine. It is performed through a small incision on the back.

Minimally-Invasive TLIF (Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion)

Minimally-Invasive TLIF (Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion)
This minimally invasive procedure is used to remove a degenerated disc to relieve the compression of nerve roots in the lumbar spine. It is performed through a small incision on the back.

Occipito-Cervical Fixation (OC Fusion)

Occipito-Cervical Fixation (OC Fusion)
This surgical procedure aligns and stabilizes the cervical spine to correct instability at the junction of the spine and skull, which can be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, spinal tumors, and spinal trauma.

Percutaneous Cervical Disc Nucleoplasty

Percutaneous Cervical Disc Nucleoplasty
This minimally-invasive procedure uses a small needle and advanced radiofrequency technology to reduce a herniated disc. The procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis.

Percutaneous Disc Decompression (Stryker® Disc Dekompressor® Discectomy)

Percutaneous Disc Decompression (Stryker® Disc Dekompressor® Discectomy)
This is a procedure to treat a herniated disc. That’s a bulging disc in your spine. Getting rid of the bulge can relieve pressure on your nerves. It can relieve pain in your lower back and your legs.

Percutaneous Disc Nucleoplasty

Percutaneous Disc Nucleoplasty
This minimally-invasive procedure uses a small needle and advanced radiofrequency technology to reduce a herniated disc, quickly relieving pain in most patients. The procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis using a gentle, relaxing medicine and local anesthetic.

Percutaneous Laser Discoplasty

Percutaneous Laser Discoplasty
This minimally-invasive procedure uses a small needle and advanced laser technology to reduce a herniated disc, quickly relieving pain in most patients. The procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis using a gentle, relaxing medicine and local anesthetic.

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF)

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF)
This procedure fuses two of your vertebrae with implants and bone graft material. It stabilizes your spine. It can be used to treat pain caused by degenerative disc disease.

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Lumbar Facets

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Lumbar Facets
During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your lower back. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn’t respond to medications or to physical therapy.

Selective Endoscopic Discectomy

Selective Endoscopic Discectomy
This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a small tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. The surgery is performed under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Boston Scientific)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Boston Scientific)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Medtronic)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Medtronic)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, ams and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead, Medtronic)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead, Medtronic)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Fusion (Lumbar)

Spinal Fusion (Lumbar)
In many spinal surgeries, two or more vertebral bones are permanently joined with a technique called “spinal fusion.” A fusion creates a solid mass of bone. It stabilizes your spine.

Spine Stabilization System (DYNESYS®)

Spine Stabilization System (DYNESYS®)
This minimally-invasive surgical procedure treats chronic lower back or leg pain by stabilizing damaged or misaligned vertebrae with specially-designed screws, spacers and cables. The flexible DYNESYS® system is an alternative to spinal fusion. It aligns and supports the spine while still allowing some flexibility and movement. The surgery takes two to three hours to perform.

TLIF: Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

TLIF: Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion
TLIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

Total Disc Replacement

Total Disc Replacement
One goal of this procedure is to relieve the pain caused by pinched nerves or discogenic pain in the lumbar spine by replacing a diseased or damaged disc with specialized metal and polyethylene implants.

Total Disc Replacement: Synthes® Prodisc-C

Total Disc Replacement: Synthes® Prodisc-C
This surgical procedure replaces a damaged or diseased disc in the cervical spine with an artificial disc that restores the natural alignment of the spine. Unlike fusion surgery, which causes the vertebrae above and below the problem disc to grow together into a single bone, the artificial disc preserves spine motion at that level.

Vertebral Augmentation

Vertebral Augmentation
This minimally-invasive, outpatient procedure is used to treat a compression fracture of the vertebra, an injury that commonly results from osteoporosis. This technique can restore the height of the vertebra and stabilize the fracture, providing rapid pain relief.

Vertebral Body Replacement (VBR)

Vertebral Body Replacement (VBR)
This surgical procedure replaces a severely diseased or damaged vertebra with a device designed to restore the spine’s proper height and alignment. The patient’s pain is relieved by eliminating pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots in the thoracic or lumbar spine.

Vertebroplasty

Vertebroplasty
This minimally-invasive procedure is an injection of bone cement into a vertebra. It stabilizes a compression fracture of the spine. One or more vertebrae may need to be treated.

XLIF® Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

XLIF® Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Unlike traditional back surgery, XLIF® is performed through the patient’s side. By entering this way, major muscles of the back are avoided. This minimally-invasive procedure is generally used to treat leg or back pain caused by degenerative disc disease. It can be performed on an outpatient basis.

YESS Selective Endoscopic Discectomy™

YESS Selective Endoscopic Discectomy™
This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a small tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. The surgery is performed under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

Arm and Elbow

Conditions

Biceps Tendonitis (at the Elbow)

Biceps Tendonitis (at the Elbow)
This is a problem with a tendon in your elbow. It’s called the “distal biceps tendon.” It connects the biceps muscle of your upper arm to the radius bone at the elbow. With this condition, the tendon becomes painfully inflamed or irritated.

Cervical Radiculopathy

Cervical Radiculopathy
This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the cervical spine. Because these nerves travel to the shoulders, arms and hands, an injury in the cervical spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Cervical radiculopathy may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the cervical spinal column.

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
This condition, also called “ulnar nerve entrapment,” happens to the ulnar nerve in your elbow. This nerve travels along the inner side of your elbow and down to your hand. It’s the nerve that makes the jolt you feel when you bump your “funny bone.” With this condition, your ulnar nerve is compressed, stretched or irritated.

Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)

Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)
This condition, commonly called tennis elbow, is an inflammation of the tendons that connect the muscles of the forearm to the elbow. The pain is primarily felt at the lateral epicondyle, the bony bump on the outer side of the elbow.

Medial Apophysitis

Medial Apophysitis
This condition, also known as Little League elbow, is an injury to the medial epicondyle growth plate. It causes pain in the elbow, and may cause swelling. This condition is most common in young baseball pitchers.

Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer’s Elbow)

Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer's Elbow)
This condition, commonly called golfer’s elbow, is an inflammation of the tendons that connect the muscles of the forearm to the elbow. The pain is primarily felt at the medial epicondyle, the bony bump on the inner side of the elbow.

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Elbow

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Elbow
This is a disorder that most often affects young athletes. It happens when part of a bone in the elbow loses its blood supply. It weakens, and so does the cartilage that covers it. Bone and cartilage may break off and drift around in the elbow. That can cause the joint to catch and lock up.

Overuse Injuries of the Elbow

Overuse Injuries of the Elbow
If you are an athlete, or if you work with your arms and hands, your elbows may be at risk for an overuse injury. This is an injury caused by repetitive motions. This type of injury can be a problem for people who play sports such as tennis or baseball. Children also have a higher risk, because their bones are still growing.

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy
This condition is a problem with the peripheral nervous system. These are the nerves that branch out from your brain and spinal cord and travel to all of the other parts of your body.

Phantom Pain

Phantom Pain
If you have lost a limb or another part of your body, you may feel painful sensations that seem to be coming from the missing part. This phenomenon is called “phantom pain.” It is common among amputees. It can become a chronic problem for some people.

Radial Tunnel Syndrome (Entrapment of the Radial Nerve)

Radial Tunnel Syndrome (Entrapment of the Radial Nerve)
This condition involves the radial nerve in your elbow. The radial nerve passes down your arm to your hand. Its branches travel into your thumb, forefinger and middle finger. With this condition, your radial nerve is compressed, stretched or irritated.

Throwing Injuries of the Elbow

Throwing Injuries of the Elbow
Throwing overhand again and again puts a lot of stress on your elbow. It can lead to injury. Young athletes, in particular, are at risk. Some play sports all year without learning how to throw properly. And, their bones are still growing. Let’s look at how the elbow can be damaged.

Triceps Tendonitis

Triceps Tendonitis
This is an inflammation of a tendon at the back of your elbow. It’s called the “triceps” tendon. It anchors your upper arm’s triceps muscle to the ulna (one of the bones of your forearm).

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury
Like other joints, the elbow is held together by strong bands of tissue called “ligaments.” On the elbow’s inner side is the ulnar collateral ligament complex. We call it the “UCL.” It’s made of three bands that connect the humerus (the upper arm bone) to the lower arm’s ulna. The UCL is the elbow ligament most often injured by baseball pitchers and by other athletes who play throwing sports.

Procedures

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)
This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or radiculopathy can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Neurotomy

Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Neurotomy
During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your neck. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn’t respond to medications or to physical therapy.

Cervical Selective Nerve Root Block

Cervical Selective Nerve Root Block
This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. It can be used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and radiculopathy.

Cervical Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

Cervical Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve neck, shoulder and arm pain related to compression of a nerve root in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Boston Scientific)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Boston Scientific)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Medtronic)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Medtronic)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, ams and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead, Medtronic)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead, Medtronic)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant (Trial Procedure)

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant (Trial Procedure)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Foot and Ankle

Conditions

Accessory Navicular Problems

Accessory Navicular Problems
An accessory navicular is an extra bone on the inner side of your foot. It’s connected to the bone we call the “navicular,” which helps form the foot’s arch. Most people don’t have an accessory navicular, and you can have one and not know it. But in some people, this extra bone causes problems.

Ankle Sprains

Ankle Sprains
Ligaments are fibrous, elastic bands of tissue that connect and stabilize the bones. An ankle sprain is a common, painful injury that occurs when one or more of the ankle ligaments is stretched beyond the normal range of motion. Sprains can occur as a result of sudden twisting, turning or rolling movements.

Charcot’s Neuroarthropathy (CN)

Charcot’s Neuroarthropathy (CN)
This condition, which most often occurs as a complication of long-term diabetes, is a progressive degenerative condition that affects the foot. It is characterized by nerve damage in the foot along with severely weakened foot bones. This combination can result in a person fracturing the foot, but continuing to walk on the broken bones, which leads to debilitating foot deformity.

Chronic Lateral Ankle Pain

Chronic Lateral Ankle Pain
This is a pain on the outer side of your ankle. It’s a lasting pain that you may feel all the time. It can make it hard for you to walk and run, and it can increase the possibility of ankle sprains.

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
This is a type of chronic, long-lasting, pain. In most cases, it develops in an arm or a leg that you have previously injured. With CRPS, you may have unexplained pain that won’t go away. It may be severe, and it may spread.

High Ankle Sprain (Syndesmosis Ligament Injury)

High Ankle Sprain (Syndesmosis Ligament Injury)
This condition is a sprain of one or more of the ligaments that hold the tibia and fibula together at the ankle. This joint, called the ankle syndesmosis, is made up of ligaments on the front and rear of the ankle, and in the space between the tibia and fibula.

Peroneal Tendonitis

Peroneal Tendonitis
This condition is an inflammation of one or both peroneal tendons, which travel down the lower leg, behind the lateral malleolus and along the outer side of the ankle.

Phantom Pain

Phantom Pain
If you have lost a limb or another part of your body, you may feel painful sensations that seem to be coming from the missing part. This phenomenon is called “phantom pain.” It is common among amputees. It can become a chronic problem for some people.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar Fasciitis
Plantar fasciitis is an irritation of the plantar fascia. This thick band of connective tissue travels across the bottom of the foot between the toes and the heel. It supports the foot’s natural arch. It stretches and becomes taut whenever the foot bears weight.

Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle

Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
Rheumatoid arthritis (we call it “RA”) is a chronic disease. It affects joints throughout your body. It commonly starts in your hands or feet. For many people, it causes problems in the feet and ankles.

Shin Splints (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome)

Shin Splints (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome)
This is pain you feel in the front of one or both of your lower legs. It can be a problem for runners, dancers, gymnasts and other active people.

Procedures

Ankle Nerve Block

Ankle Nerve Block
This outpatient procedure numbs the ankle and foot with an injection of local anesthesia. Typically, it is used for surgery on the foot. The block requires a series of injections that will numb up to five nerves in the ankle.

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Biologics is a relatively new class of drugs that has proven beneficial for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, along with a wide range of other diseases. Rather than being created through chemistry, biologic drugs are produced by biological processes.

Cold Laser Therapy

Cold Laser Therapy
This technique uses laser light to promote the healing of injured tissues. It may be used to replace invasive procedures such as injections and surgery. In some cases, it may reduce the need for physical therapy.

PRP Therapy for Achilles Tendon Pain

PRP Therapy for Achilles Tendon Pain
If you have pain in your Achilles tendon, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your ankle feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Achilles Tendon Pain (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy for Achilles Tendon Pain (AcCELLerated Biologics)
If you have pain in your Achilles tendon, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your ankle feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Peroneal Tendonitis

PRP Therapy for Peroneal Tendonitis
If you have painful tendons on the outer side of your ankle, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your ankle feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Peroneal Tendonitis (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy for Peroneal Tendonitis (AcCELLerated Biologics)
If you have painful tendons on the outer side of your ankle, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your ankle feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Plantar Fasciitis

PRP Therapy for Plantar Fasciitis
If you have pain in your foot from plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your foot feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Plantar Fasciitis (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy for Plantar Fasciitis (AcCELLerated Biologics)
If you have pain in your foot from plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your foot feel better and work better.

General Body

Conditions

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)
This debilitating disorder causes severe exhaustion that doesn’t go away after you rest. It makes even the most ordinary daily activities difficult to do.

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
This is a type of chronic, long-lasting, pain. In most cases, it develops in an arm or a leg that you have previously injured. With CRPS, you may have unexplained pain that won’t go away. It may be severe, and it may spread.

Constipation (Opioid-Induced)

Constipation (Opioid-Induced)
This condition, also called OIC, is a temporary problem with the function of your bowels. It is an uncomfortable side-effect from taking certain drugs that contain opioids. These drugs are commonly taken to control pain.

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia
This chronic condition is believed to be a type of interference with the way your brain processes pain signals. It leaves you highly sensitive to pain. If you have this condition, you may feel long-lasting pain throughout your body.

Metastatic Cancer of the Spine

Metastatic Cancer of the Spine
This form of cancer develops in or near the spinal cord or within the vertebrae. It can spread through multiple levels of the spine. It can lead to a wide range of serious complications.

Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Myofascial Pain Syndrome
This is a chronic pain disorder. It affects the muscles and the connective tissue (called the “fascia”) that surrounds them. With this syndrome, you may develop sensitive areas on your body called “trigger points.” When these places are pressed or stressed, you feel pain. This condition can affect muscles throughout your body.

Pain Management (Overview)

Pain Management (Overview)
If you suffer from pain, you know how hard it can be to live with. Pain management is a branch of medical care that specializes in pain control. It can help you enjoy a better quality of life.

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy
This condition is a problem with the peripheral nervous system. These are the nerves that branch out from your brain and spinal cord and travel to all of the other parts of your body.

Phantom Pain

Phantom Pain
If you have lost a limb or another part of your body, you may feel painful sensations that seem to be coming from the missing part. This phenomenon is called “phantom pain.” It is common among amputees. It can become a chronic problem for some people.

Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis Syndrome
This is a pain and numbness you feel in your buttock and down the back of your leg. It involves the sciatic nerve. That’s a large nerve that travels from your lower spine down to your foot.

Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN)

Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN)
This chronic condition is caused by a misfiring of the trigeminal nerve. An attack causes brief episodes of extreme, shooting pain.

Procedures

Anesthesia (Conscious Sedation)

Anesthesia (Conscious Sedation)
Conscious sedation is a type of anesthesia that makes the patient feel very relaxed. It reduces painful sensations and the awareness of pain. It is not intended to put the patient to sleep, and will wear off quickly after a procedure. Conscious sedation is commonly used for simple procedures that can be completed quickly.

Anesthesia (Epidural)

Anesthesia (Epidural)
Epidural anesthesia is a numbing medication injected through a catheter placed in the epidural space of the spine. It can be used to numb the abdomen, groin, legs and feet. It does not put the patient to sleep, but blocks painful sensations during or after a medical procedure.

Anesthesia (General)

Anesthesia (General)
General anesthesia makes a person unconscious. People call this “put under” or “put to sleep.” But it isn’t the same as regular sleep. A person given general anesthesia cannot feel pain. And, the person won’t remember what happens during a medical procedure.

Anesthesia (Local)

Anesthesia (Local)
Local anesthesia makes a part of the body numb to prevent a patient from feeling pain during a medical procedure. Local anesthesia is commonly used for many minor outpatient surgeries.

Anesthesia (Lumbar Puncture, Spinal Anesthesia)

Anesthesia (Lumbar Puncture, Spinal Anesthesia)
This numbing medication is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid through a fine needle placed near the nerve roots of the lower spine. It can be used to numb the abdomen, groin, legs and feet. It does not put the patient to sleep, but blocks painful sensations during or after a medical procedure.

Anesthesia (Monitored Anesthesia Care, MAC)

Anesthesia (Monitored Anesthesia Care, MAC)
Monitored anesthesia care is a type of anesthesia that makes the patient feel very relaxed. It reduces painful sensations and the awareness of pain. It is not intended to put the patient to sleep, and will wear off quickly after a procedure. Monitored anesthesia care is commonly used for simple procedures that can be completed quickly.

Anesthesia (Overview)

Anesthesia (Overview)
Anesthesia is the use of medications to block the pain of a medical procedure. The medications that block this pain are called anesthetics. Different forms of anesthesia are used to prepare patients for different types of procedures.

Anesthesia (Peripheral Nerve Block)

Anesthesia (Peripheral Nerve Block)
A peripheral nerve block is a type of regional anesthesia. It can completely block sensation in an arm, leg or other area for surgery. A peripheral nerve block doesn’t put you to sleep. However, a nerve block can be combined with sedation or general anesthesia during surgery.

Anesthesia (Regional)

Anesthesia (Regional)
Regional anesthesia makes an area of the body numb to prevent the patient from feeling pain during or after a medical procedure. It can completely block sensation to a large area of the body. Regional anesthesia does not put a patient to sleep, but it is commonly used along with sedation. It may also be used with general anesthesia.

Cold Laser Therapy

Cold Laser Therapy
This technique uses laser light to promote the healing of injured tissues. It may be used to replace invasive procedures such as injections and surgery. In some cases, it may reduce the need for physical therapy.

CT Scan (Computed Tomography; CAT Scan)

CT Scan (Computed Tomography; CAT Scan)
This scan lets doctors see inside your body by taking x-ray images from many angles. These are combined to show clear cross-section slices of parts of your body. A CT scan shows much more than a typical x-ray. It can show cancer and other problems.

Electromyography (EMG)

Electromyography (EMG)
This is a test of your muscles and nerves. It usually has two parts. One is a nerve conduction study. This measures how well electricity moves through your nerves. The second part is a needle electromyogram. It records the electrical signals your muscles make when you move them. The results can help your doctor find problems linked to certain disorders or conditions.

Intraoperative Monitoring (IOM) of the Nerves

Intraoperative Monitoring (IOM) of the Nerves
This technique is used during complex surgical procedures, especially those that involve manipulation of the spinal cord. IOM allows a neurotechnologist to monitor the health of the nervous system in real time during surgery. This greatly reduces the risk of surgery-related nerve damage.

Lumbar Sympathetic Block

Lumbar Sympathetic Block
This procedure is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your lower back. It helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to these nerves. Usually, a series of injections is needed to treat a problem.

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
This scan lets doctors see inside your body without using radiation. Instead, MRIs use magnets and radio waves. An MRI shows clear views of your soft tissues. It can show cancer and other problems.

Multimodal Anesthesia and Pain Control

Multimodal Anesthesia and Pain Control
Multimodal pain control eases your pain with a combination of medicines. It can be used before, during and after a surgical procedure. The goal is to reduce the use of narcotics and their unpleasant side effects.

Myofascial Release

Myofascial Release
If you have long lasting muscle pain, myofascial release may help. This therapy targets the layer of tissue that covers your muscles. It’s called the “fascia.” It can become tight. It can lead to sensitive places called “trigger points.” Myofascial release can help relax your fascia to reduce your pain.

Nerve Conduction Study (NCS)

Nerve Conduction Study (NCS)
This noninvasive, outpatient exam is used to measure how quickly nerves conduct electrical signals through the body. NCS is a valuable technique for diagnosing nerve damage. If damage exists, NCS can help a physician find its source.

Pain Management (Overview)

Pain Management (Overview)
If you suffer from pain, you know how hard it can be to live with. Pain management is a branch of medical care that specializes in pain control. It can help you enjoy a better quality of life.

PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography)

PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography)
This scan lets doctors see inside your body. A PET scan is different from an MRI or a CT scan, because it shows how your organs and systems are working. It can give doctors a clear view of some types of cancer cells, which show up brightly on a PET scan. It can also help doctors diagnose other disorders throughout your body.

Physical Therapy (Overview)

Physical Therapy (Overview)
If you have problems moving your body, physical therapy can help. It can control your pain and help you recover from injury or disease. It can help you get better after surgery. It can also help keep you healthy as you get older.

Prolotherapy Overview

Prolotherapy Overview
This non-surgical procedure relieves chronic pain with an injection that promotes the natural healing of injured tissues and joints. The limited blood supply and poor healing properties of ligaments, cartilage and tendons make treatment necessary after injury.

PRP Therapy (Overview)

PRP Therapy (Overview)
Platelet rich plasma therapy can help injured joints and other problems. It uses parts of your own blood to reduce pain and speed up healing.

PRP Therapy (Overview) (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy (Overview) (AcCELLerated Biologics)
Platelet rich plasma therapy can help injured joints and other problems. It uses parts of your own blood to reduce pain and speed up healing.

Stellate Ganglion Block

Stellate Ganglion Block
A stellate ganglion nerve block is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your neck. This helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to the nerves. Treatment may require a series of injections.

Trigger Point Injections

Trigger Point Injections
This outpatient procedure is designed to reduce or relieve the pain of trigger points. These small, tender knots can form in muscles or in the fascia (the soft, stretchy connective tissue that surrounds muscles and organs). The trigger point injection procedure takes only a few minutes to complete.

Hand and Wrist

Conditions

Basal Joint Osteoarthritis

Basal Joint Osteoarthritis
This condition is a degeneration of cartilage in the joints at the base of the thumb, collectively called the basal joint. The main component of the basal joint is the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC), joint. This joint, which allows the thumb to pivot and swivel, can wear out even early in life.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Pain, numbness and tingling in your hand may be from carpal tunnel syndrome. It happens when the area around the main nerve to your hand is too tight. The nerve is called the median nerve. And the small space in your wrist where it passes is called the carpal tunnel.

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
This is a type of chronic, long-lasting, pain. In most cases, it develops in an arm or a leg that you have previously injured. With CRPS, you may have unexplained pain that won’t go away. It may be severe, and it may spread.

De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis

De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis
This condition, also called stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, is an inflammation of the sheath that wraps around the tendons at the thumb side of the wrist.

Flexor Tendon Injuries

Flexor Tendon Injuries
The flexor tendons of the hand are responsible for flexion of the fingers and thumb toward the palm. These long structures are connected to the flexor muscles in the forearm. An injury to one of these tendons can cause pain and inability to flex the finger or thumb and grasp with the hand. Common flexor tendon injuries include lacerations, ruptures and inflammation.

Osteoarthritis of the Hand

Osteoarthritis of the Hand
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It develops over time, often because of the wear and tear of daily activities.

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy
This condition is a problem with the peripheral nervous system. These are the nerves that branch out from your brain and spinal cord and travel to all of the other parts of your body.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Hand

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Hand
Rheumatoid arthritis, a condition that can attack joints throughout the body, commonly affects the joints and surrounding tendons of the wrist and fingers. It can cause the joints to become swollen, painful and possibly deformed. This can interfere with normal hand function. It can significantly impact a person’s quality of life.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Hand (Arthritis Foundation Approved)

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Hand (Arthritis Foundation Approved)
Rheumatoid arthritis, a condition that can attack joints throughout the body, commonly affects the joints and surrounding tendons of the wrist and fingers. It can cause the joints to become swollen, painful and possibly deformed, interfering with normal hand function and significantly impacting a person’s quality of life.

Thumb Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) Injury

Thumb Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) Injury
This condition, also called skier’s thumb, is an acute sprain or tear of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) on the ulnar side of the metacarpal-phalangeal (MCP) joint of the thumb. A related condition, called gamekeeper’s thumb, is a chronic injury that develops over time from repeated stretching of the UCL.

Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC) Tears

Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC) Tears
This condition is a degenerative or traumatic tear of one or more parts of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), which stabilizes the ulna. The TFCC is composed of a group of ligaments that form connections between the radius, ulna and the carpal bones of the hand. At the center of these ligaments lies the most commonly injured structure, the triangular fibrocartilage disc, which is connected between the radius and the base of the ulnar styloid.

Trigger Digit

Trigger Digit
This common condition, also known as stenosing tenosynovitis, is a narrowing of a portion of the tendon sheath in the finger or thumb that interferes with normal finger movement. This condition most commonly affects the ring finger, but can affect any digit. It is more common in middle-aged women, but anyone can be affected, even newborns.

Wrist Sprain

Wrist Sprain
When your wrist is bent too far, this can injure bands of tissue called “ligaments.” Ligaments connect the bones of your hand to each other. They also connect the bones of your hand to the bones of your forearm.

Procedures

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Biologics is a relatively new class of drugs that has proven beneficial for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, along with a wide range of other diseases. Rather than being created through chemistry, biologic drugs are produced by biological processes.

Cold Laser Therapy

Cold Laser Therapy
This technique uses laser light to promote the healing of injured tissues. It may be used to replace invasive procedures such as injections and surgery. In some cases, it may reduce the need for physical therapy.

Radial Nerve Block

Radial Nerve Block
This outpatient procedure numbs the hand with an injection of local anesthetic. Typically, it is used for surgery on the hand or fingers.

Head, Neck and Spine

Conditions

Anatomy of the Spine

Anatomy of the Spine
The spinal column is the body’s main support structure. Its thirty-three bones, called vertebrae, are divided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal.

Cervical Radiculopathy

Cervical Radiculopathy
This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the cervical spine. Because these nerves travel to the shoulders, arms and hands, an injury in the cervical spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Cervical radiculopathy may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the cervical spinal column.

Cluster Headaches

Cluster Headaches
This condition is a neurological problem that results in periodic episodes of intense pain. Cluster headaches are one of the most painful types of headaches. They often strike in cyclical patterns. The person will have frequent bouts of cluster headaches, and then the headaches will stop completely for a period of time.

Coccydynia

Coccydynia
This condition is an inflammation of the tip of the tailbone, called the coccyx. It causes pain and tenderness between the buttocks.

Compression Fractures of the Spine

Compression Fractures of the Spine
This is a collapse of vertebral bone. It can affect one or more vertebrae. Compression fractures typically develop in your mid or lower back. This can change the shape of your spine.

Concussion

Concussion
This common brain injury is caused by an impact to the head or upper body. A concussion interferes with brain function. In most cases the effects are mild and temporary, and the concussion does not cause permanent injury. But a concussion is a serious injury that can cause lasting brain damage or death if not treated properly.

Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative Disc Disease
This condition is a weakening of one or more vertebral discs, which normally act as a cushion between the vertebrae. This condition can develop as a natural part of the aging process, but it may also result from injury to the back.

Facet Joint Syndrome

Facet Joint Syndrome
This condition is a deterioration of the facet joints, which help stabilize the spine and limit excessive motion. The facet joints are lined with cartilage and are surrounded by a lubricating capsule that enables the vertebrae to bend and twist.

Herniated Disc (Cervical)

Herniated Disc (Cervical)
This condition is a rupture of one of the vertebral discs in your neck. A herniated disc can allow disc material to press harmfully against the spinal nerves.

Herniated Discs

Herniated Discs
A herniated disc is a common injury that can affect any part of the spine. A herniated disc can cause severe pain and other problems in the arms or legs.

Kyphosis

Kyphosis
This condition is a deformity of the spine. With it, your vertebrae change from a cylindrical shape to a wedge shape. Your spine may begin to curve forward. Eventually, this gives your upper back a rounded appearance.

Lumbar Radiculopathy (Sciatica)

Lumbar Radiculopathy (Sciatica)
This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Because these nerves travel to the hips, buttocks, legs and feet, an injury in the lumbar spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Sciatica may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the lumbar spinal column.

Migraine Headaches

Migraine Headaches
A migraine is an intense, throbbing headache that may be accompanied by nausea or dizziness. A migraine can last from hours to days.

Muscle Strain of the Upper Back (Trapezius Strain)

Muscle Strain of the Upper Back (Trapezius Strain)
This common injury is a stretching or tearing of the trapezius. This large muscle group spans the upper back, shoulders and neck. These muscles are commonly called the “trap” muscles.

Post-Laminectomy Syndrome

Post-Laminectomy Syndrome
This condition, also called “failed back syndrome,” is a type of chronic pain. It can develop in some people after spine surgery.

Post-Whiplash Headache

Post-Whiplash Headache
This is a chronic headache. It can develop after a whiplash injury (a violent back-and-forth jerking of the neck).

Scoliosis

Scoliosis
This condition is an abnormal curvature of the spine. It most often develops in early childhood, just before a child reaches puberty.

Spinal Epidural Abscess

Spinal Epidural Abscess
This mass is a collection of pus that forms in the spinal canal. It forms between the spinal cord (or nerve roots) and the vertebral bones. In the cervical and thoracic regions of the spine, it can press against the spinal cord. In the lumbar region, it can press against the nerve roots. A spinal epidural abscess can cause problems throughout the body.

Spinal Infection

Spinal Infection
This is an infection most often caused by staphylococcus or E. coli bacteria. It may involve the bones, discs and soft tissues of your spine. It can start in one area of your spine and spread to other parts. It can cause pain and other problems.

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal Stenosis
The spinal column contains open spaces that create passageways for the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of (or an intrusion into) these openings. This can cause a compression of the nerves. Spinal stenosis most commonly affects the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine.

Spinal Stenosis (Cervical)

Spinal Stenosis (Cervical)
This condition is a narrowing of the spinal canal that results from the degeneration of bones, discs, or joints in the cervical spine.

Spinal Stenosis (Thoracic)

Spinal Stenosis (Thoracic)
This condition affects the thoracic spine between the neck and the lower back. It is a narrowing of the spinal canal that results from degeneration of bones in the spine, disc herniation, or thickening of the tissues that surround the spinal cord.

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis
This condition occurs when a lumbar vertebra slips out of place. It slides forward, distorting the shape of your spine. This may compress the nerves in the spinal canal. The nerves that exit the foramen (open spaces on the sides of your vertebrae) may also be compressed. These compressed nerves can cause pain and other problems.

Spondylosis

Spondylosis
This condition is a degeneration of the spine that can affect the spine at any level, resulting in pain and discomfort that can grow worse over time.

Tension Headache

Tension Headache
This is a common type of headache that can be painful and frustrating for many people. It tends to start in the back of the head and then move forward to surround your head.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
This is a label given to a group of disorders. In these disorders, nerves or blood vessels are compressed in the space between your collarbone and the underlying rib. This space is called the “thoracic outlet.”

Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN)

Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN)
This chronic condition is caused by a misfiring of the trigeminal nerve. An attack causes brief episodes of extreme, shooting pain.

Where Lower Back Pain Begins

Where Lower Back Pain Begins
Lower back pain is a common problem that severely impacts the quality of your life. It can limit your ability to be active. It can cause you to miss work. Many different causes may lead to pain in your lower back.

Where Neck Pain Begins

Where Neck Pain Begins
Neck pain is a common problem that severely impacts the quality of your life. It can limit your ability to be active. It can cause you to miss work. Many different causes may lead to pain in your neck.

Whiplash

Whiplash
This is a common neck injury. It happens when your neck jerks back and forth quickly and violently. Your spine bends past its normal range of motion. This can injure the vertebrae of your cervical spine. It can damage the supporting ligaments and muscles in your neck.

Procedures

ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
ALIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

Anesthesia (Epidural)

Anesthesia (Epidural)
Epidural anesthesia is a numbing medication injected through a catheter placed in the epidural space of the spine. It can be used to numb the abdomen, groin, legs and feet. It does not put the patient to sleep, but blocks painful sensations during or after a medical procedure.

Anesthesia (Lumbar Puncture, Spinal Anesthesia)

Anesthesia (Lumbar Puncture, Spinal Anesthesia)
This numbing medication is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid through a fine needle placed near the nerve roots of the lower spine. It can be used to numb the abdomen, groin, legs and feet. It does not put the patient to sleep, but blocks painful sensations during or after a medical procedure.

Anterior Cervical Corpectomy

Anterior Cervical Corpectomy
This surgery relieves pressure on the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. It involves the removal of bone and discs from your cervical spine, followed by a fusion.

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)
This surgery removes a herniated or degenerative vertebral disc in your neck and replaces it with a bone graft. This can relieve painful pressure on spinal nerves.

Anterior Endoscopic Cervical Microdiscectomy

Anterior Endoscopic Cervical Microdiscectomy
This minimally-invasive surgical procedure, performed through a tiny hole in the neck, removes the bulging portion of a herniated cervical disc. It is designed to relieve neck and radiating arm pain caused by herniated disc material pressing on nerve roots.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement
This procedure replaces a degenerative or damaged spinal disc with an implant designed to preserve motion in your neck. This procedure can relieve the pain of compressed nerves in the cervical spine.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (Mobi-C®)

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (Mobi-C®)
This procedure replaces a degenerative or damaged spinal disc with an implant designed to preserve motion in your neck. This procedure can relieve the pain of compressed nerves in the cervical spine.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (PCM)

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (PCM)
(Caution: Investigational Device)
A goal of this procedure is to relieve the pain caused by pinched nerves due to a damaged disc in the cervical spine. The diseased or damaged disc will be replaced with a specialized implant.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (Prestige®)

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement (Prestige®)
This procedure replaces a diseased or damaged spinal disc with a specialized implant designed to preserve motion in the neck. This procedure can relieve the pain of pinched nerves in the cervical spine.

AxiaLIF® (Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion)

AxiaLIF® (Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion)
In this minimally-invasive procedure, performed under general anesthesia, portions of a diseased or damaged disc in the lumbar spine are removed and a device is implanted to secure one or more vertebrae to the sacrum. It is typically used to treat back pain caused by a degenerative disc between the lowest lumbar vertebra (called L5) and the top of the sacrum (called S1).

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Biologics is a relatively new class of drugs that has proven beneficial for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, along with a wide range of other diseases. Rather than being created through chemistry, biologic drugs are produced by biological processes.

Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection

Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication through an opening in the sacrum. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. The injection takes only a few minutes to complete.

Celiac Plexus Block (Percutaneous Approach)

Celiac Plexus Block (Percutaneous Approach)
This procedure temporarily disrupts the nerves of the celiac plexus. These nerves branch away from your spine. They connect to the organs in your abdomen. Pain signals caused by conditions such as pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer travel through these nerves on the way to your brain. A celiac plexus block can relieve your pain.

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)

Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)
This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or radiculopathy can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Neurotomy

Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Neurotomy
During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your neck. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn’t respond to medications or to physical therapy.

Cervical Laminaplasty (Cervical Laminoplasty)

Cervical Laminaplasty (Cervical Laminoplasty)
This surgical procedure creates more space for the spinal cord and nerve roots to relieve the painful pressure of spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal that can result from arthritis.

Cervical Laminaplasty (no hardware)

Cervical Laminaplasty (no hardware)
This procedure is used to treat a painfully restricted spinal canal in the neck. The procedure creates more space for the spinal cord and nerve roots, immediately relieving pressure. The technique is often called an “open door laminaplasty,” because the back of the vertebrae is made to swing open like a door.

Cervical Posterior Foraminotomy

Cervical Posterior Foraminotomy
This surgery creates more space for a compressed spinal nerve in your neck. The procedure relieves painful pressure caused by a herniated or degenerative disc.

Cervical Selective Nerve Root Block

Cervical Selective Nerve Root Block
This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. It can be used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and radiculopathy.

Cervical Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

Cervical Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve neck, shoulder and arm pain related to compression of a nerve root in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

Cold Laser Therapy

Cold Laser Therapy
This technique uses laser light to promote the healing of injured tissues. It may be used to replace invasive procedures such as injections and surgery. In some cases, it may reduce the need for physical therapy.

Costovertebral Joint Injection

Costovertebral Joint Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of pain-relieving medication into one or more costovertebral joints. These are the joints that form the connections between the ribs and the vertebrae.

Disc Biacuplasty (TransDiscal™ System)

Disc Biacuplasty (TransDiscal™ System)
This minimally-invasive procedure, which takes about 30 minutes to perform, uses radiofrequency probes to treat chronic back pain.

Disc Replacement, Lumbar (Charité™)

Disc Replacement, Lumbar (Charité™)
This surgical procedure replaces a damaged or diseased disc in the lumbar spine with an artificial disc that restores the natural alignment of the spine. Unlike fusion surgery, which causes the vertebrae above and below the problem disc to grow together into a single bone, the artificial disc preserves spine motion at that level.

Disc Replacement, Lumbar (Maverick™)

Disc Replacement, Lumbar (Maverick™)
This surgical procedure replaces a damaged or diseased disc in the lumbar spine with an artificial disc that restores the natural alignment of the spine. Unlike fusion surgery, which causes the vertebrae above and below the problem disc to grow together into a single bone, the artificial disc preserves spine motion at that level.

Discography (Lumbar)

Discography (Lumbar)
This procedure, also called a “discogram,” helps your doctor find painful spinal discs. It can show the source of pain in your back. To see how it works, let’s watch a discography done in the lumbar spine.

Endoscopic-Assisted Lumbar Interbody Fusion (Transforaminal)

Endoscopic-Assisted Lumbar Interbody Fusion (Transforaminal)
During this minimally invasive procedure, the surgeon replaces a damaged disc in the lumbar spine with an expandable implant. The surgeon also implants hardware to stabilize the spine. This procedure relieves nerve root compression, which is a common cause of pain in the back and legs.

Epidural for Cancer

Epidural for Cancer
This procedure is an injection of anesthetic into the lower back. This type of injection is used to relieve pain that does not respond to oral or IV medications.

Epidural for Childbirth

Epidural for Childbirth
This procedure is an injection of anesthetic through the lower back. This injection numbs the lower abdomen, blocking the pain of childbirth. A patient who has been given an epidural will remain awake and alert. The patient will still have the ability to push to deliver the baby.

Facet Joint Injections

Facet Joint Injections
The facet joints, found on both sides of the back of the spine, can become painfully irritated or inflamed. A facet joint injection may help diagnose the source of a patient’s pain. It can also relieve pain and inflammation.

Interspinous Process Decompression (X STOP®)

Interspinous Process Decompression (X STOP®)
In this minimally-invasive outpatient procedure, usually performed under local anesthesia and sedation, a titanium alloy device is implanted to relieve back pain and numbness in the legs caused by lumbar spinal stenosis. This procedure is an alternative to laminectomy or spinal fusion.

Interspinous Stabilization (Coflex™)

Interspinous Stabilization (Coflex™)
In this surgical procedure, a titanium alloy device is implanted to relieve back pain or numbness in the legs or buttocks caused by spinal stenosis. This procedure is a non-fusion, minimally-invasive alternative to laminectomy with or without spinal fusion.

Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET)

Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET)
This is a treatment for chronic pain in your lower back. The physician uses heat to reduce the sensitivity of nerve fibers in a spinal disc. More than one disc may be treated.

Intralaminar Lumbar Microendoscopic Discectomy

Intralaminar Lumbar Microendoscopic Discectomy
This minimally-invasive procedure, performed through a tube called a cannula, is designed to relieve the pain caused by herniated disc tissue pressing against nerve roots in the spine. The surgery is performed under general anesthesia, and the patient is allowed to leave the hospital the same day.

Intrathecal Pump Implant

Intrathecal Pump Implant
An intrathecal pump relieves chronic pain. It uses small amounts of medicine applied directly to the intrathecal space (the area surrounding the spinal cord) to prevent pain signals from being perceived by the brain. Pump candidates include people for whom conservative treatments have failed and surgery is not likely to help.

Intrathecal Pump Implant (Medtronic)

Intrathecal Pump Implant (Medtronic)
An intrathecal pump relieves chronic pain. It uses small amounts of medicine applied directly to the intrathecal space (the area surrounding the spinal cord) to prevent pain signals from being perceived by the brain. Pump candidates include people for whom conservative treatments have failed and surgery is not likely to help.

Kyphoplasty (Balloon Vertebroplasty)

Kyphoplasty (Balloon Vertebroplasty)
This minimally-invasive procedure repairs a vertebral compression fracture. It helps restore the spine’s natural shape. Some patients experience rapid pain relief after the procedure.

Laminectomy

Laminectomy
This procedure relieves pressure on the nerve roots in the spine. It is most commonly performed to relieve the pain of stenosis. This is a narrowing of the spinal canal that is often caused by the formation of bony growths that can press against the nerve roots. The surgeon may treat one or more vertebrae.

Lumbar Corpectomy

Lumbar Corpectomy
This procedure is performed to relieve the pain caused when diseased or damaged vertebrae bone blocks and pinches nerve roots. It also corrects spinal column deformities. During this procedure, the patient is positioned on his right side. The surgery is performed through the patient’s left side.

Lumbar Disc Microsurgery

Lumbar Disc Microsurgery
This minimally-invasive procedure relieves pressure on nerve roots caused by a herniated disc. It can eliminate the pain of sciatica.

Lumbar Discoscopic Discectomy

Lumbar Discoscopic Discectomy
This minimally-invasive procedure is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. This surgery is performed through a small tubular device under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve low back and radiating leg pain. Steroid medication can reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by spinal conditions.

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)
This injection procedure is performed to relieve low back and radiating leg pain. Steroid medication can reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by spinal conditions.

Lumbar Inter-Body Fusion (IBF)

Lumbar Inter-Body Fusion (IBF)
Designed to be a less invasive way to fuse the spine, IBF is generally used for the treatment of back pain caused by degenerative disc disease. When the procedure is performed from the front (anterior) of the spine, a minimally-invasive endoscopic technique may be used. The surgery in the following animation is performed through an anterior approach.

Lumbar Pedicle Screw Fixation (CD Horizon® Sextant®)

Lumbar Pedicle Screw Fixation (CD Horizon® Sextant®)
This minimally-invasive procedure uses special guides and fluoroscopic imaging to allow a surgeon to precisely implant stabilizing screws and rods in the spine while minimizing damage to muscles, tendons and other soft tissue in the back.

Lumbar Spinous Process Plating (CD Horizon® SPIRE™)

Lumbar Spinous Process Plating (CD Horizon® SPIRE™)
In this minimally-invasive procedure, a metal device is implanted to stabilize the spine and help relieve back problems from conditions such as spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degenerative arthritis. This procedure is often performed in addition to spinal fixation with pedicle screws and rods.

Lumbar Sympathetic Block

Lumbar Sympathetic Block
This procedure is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your lower back. It helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to these nerves. Usually, a series of injections is needed to treat a problem.

Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. This procedure is performed to relieve pain in the lower back and pain that radiates from the back to the legs. The injection takes only a few minutes to complete.

Medial Branch Block

Medial Branch Block
This diagnostic procedure is performed to identify a painful facet joint. The facet joints are the joints between the vertebrae in the spine. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist.

Medial Branch Block (Cervical)

Medial Branch Block (Cervical)
This is an injection of numbing medicine that bathes the medial branch nerves. These nerves are attached to the facet joints of the spine. Disease or injury of these joints can cause pain in the medial branch nerves. This pain may travel through the neck, shoulders, upper back and head. A medial branch block can help your physician find the source of your pain. It may also provide temporary pain relief.

Micro Endoscopic Discectomy

Micro Endoscopic Discectomy
This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. This surgery is usually performed on an outpatient basis, which allows the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

Micro Endoscopic Posterior Cervical Discectomy

Micro Endoscopic Posterior Cervical Discectomy
This surgery removes bone and/or portions of a herniated or diseased disc to relieve neck and radiating arm pain caused by parts of the disc pressing on nerve roots.

Myelography (Myelogram)

Myelography (Myelogram)
This outpatient procedure is a diagnostic examination of the spine. It allows the physician to identify problems involving the spine, the spinal cord and the nerve roots.

Osteoporosis Screening

Osteoporosis Screening
As you get older, your risk for osteoporosis increases. That’s a disease that makes your bones thin and weak. A screening procedure called a “bone density test” shows if you have osteoporosis. It shows if you are likely to develop it. Or, if you are being treated for osteoporosis, it can show if your treatment is working.

Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA)

Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA)
This is a method of pain control. With it, you push a button attached to an IV pump device to give yourself a dose of pain relief medication. PCEA is often used to ease the pain of childbirth. It can also be helpful in the days immediately after some surgical procedures.

Percutaneous Cervical Disc Nucleoplasty

Percutaneous Cervical Disc Nucleoplasty
This minimally-invasive procedure uses a small needle and advanced radiofrequency technology to reduce a herniated disc. The procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis.

Percutaneous Disc Decompression (Stryker® Disc Dekompressor® Discectomy)

Percutaneous Disc Decompression (Stryker® Disc Dekompressor® Discectomy)
This is a procedure to treat a herniated disc. That’s a bulging disc in your spine. Getting rid of the bulge can relieve pressure on your nerves. It can relieve pain in your lower back and your legs.

Percutaneous Disc Nucleoplasty

Percutaneous Disc Nucleoplasty
This minimally-invasive procedure uses a small needle and advanced radiofrequency technology to reduce a herniated disc, quickly relieving pain in most patients. The procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis using a gentle, relaxing medicine and local anesthetic.

Percutaneous Laser Discoplasty

Percutaneous Laser Discoplasty
This minimally-invasive procedure uses a small needle and advanced laser technology to reduce a herniated disc, quickly relieving pain in most patients. The procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis using a gentle, relaxing medicine and local anesthetic.

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF)

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF)
This procedure fuses two of your vertebrae with implants and bone graft material. It stabilizes your spine. It can be used to treat pain caused by degenerative disc disease.

Prolotherapy Treatment for Chronic Lower Back Pain

Prolotherapy Treatment for Chronic Lower Back Pain
This non-surgical procedure relieves chronic lower back pain with an injection that promotes the natural healing of damaged joints and soft tissues of the spine.

PRP Therapy for Chronic Back Pain

PRP Therapy for Chronic Back Pain
If you have back pain, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your back feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Chronic Back Pain (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy for Chronic Back Pain (AcCELLerated Biologics)
If you have back pain, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your back feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Whiplash

PRP Therapy for Whiplash
If you have whiplash, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your neck feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Whiplash (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy for Whiplash (AcCELLerated Biologics)
If you have whiplash, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your neck feel better and work better.

RACZ Caudal Neurolysis

RACZ Caudal Neurolysis
This injection, generally performed as an outpatient procedure under local anesthesia, relieves low back and leg pain most often caused by scarring from a prior back surgery. The procedure is performed with the patient lying face down with a cushion placed under the stomach.

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Lumbar Facets

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Lumbar Facets
During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your lower back. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn’t respond to medications or to physical therapy.

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Thoracic Facets

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Thoracic Facets
During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your upper back. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn’t respond to medications or to physical therapy.

Sacroiliac Joint Steroid Injection

Sacroiliac Joint Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve pain caused by arthritis in the sacroiliac joint where the spine and hip bone meet. The steroid medication can reduce swelling and inflammation in the joint.

Spinal Anesthesia for Childbirth

Spinal Anesthesia for Childbirth
This procedure is an injection of anesthetic that numbs the lower abdomen to block the pain of childbirth. It is commonly used for vaginal deliveries that require the use of forceps. It is also used for cesarean sections. The patient remains awake and alert during and after the injection.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Boston Scientific)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Boston Scientific)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Medtronic)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Medtronic)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, ams and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead, Medtronic)

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead, Medtronic)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant (Trial Procedure)

Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant (Trial Procedure)
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.

Spinal Fusion (Lumbar)

Spinal Fusion (Lumbar)
In many spinal surgeries, two or more vertebral bones are permanently joined with a technique called “spinal fusion.” A fusion creates a solid mass of bone. It stabilizes your spine.

Spine Stabilization System (DYNESYS®)

Spine Stabilization System (DYNESYS®)
This minimally-invasive surgical procedure treats chronic lower back or leg pain by stabilizing damaged or misaligned vertebrae with specially-designed screws, spacers and cables. The flexible DYNESYS® system is an alternative to spinal fusion. It aligns and supports the spine while still allowing some flexibility and movement. The surgery takes two to three hours to perform.

Stellate Ganglion Block

Stellate Ganglion Block
A stellate ganglion nerve block is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your neck. This helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to the nerves. Treatment may require a series of injections.

Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Discs

Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Discs
Spinal discs allow your spine to bend and twist. These flexible shock absorbers can be damaged by injury, disease, or the added stress that can result from a spinal fusion. But stem cell therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help repair disc damage. It can slow disc degeneration. It may help you avoid surgery.

Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection

Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection performed to relieve pain in the upper back.

Thoracic Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

Thoracic Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection procedure relieves pain in the upper back, ribs, and abdomen caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the thoracic spine.

TLIF: Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

TLIF: Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion
TLIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

Total Disc Replacement

Total Disc Replacement
One goal of this procedure is to relieve the pain caused by pinched nerves or discogenic pain in the lumbar spine by replacing a diseased or damaged disc with specialized metal and polyethylene implants.

Vertebral Augmentation

Vertebral Augmentation
This minimally-invasive, outpatient procedure is used to treat a compression fracture of the vertebra, an injury that commonly results from osteoporosis. This technique can restore the height of the vertebra and stabilize the fracture, providing rapid pain relief.

Vertebral Body Replacement (VBR)

Vertebral Body Replacement (VBR)
This surgical procedure replaces a severely diseased or damaged vertebra with a device designed to restore the spine’s proper height and alignment. The patient’s pain is relieved by eliminating pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots in the thoracic or lumbar spine.

Vertebroplasty

Vertebroplasty
This minimally-invasive procedure is an injection of bone cement into a vertebra. It stabilizes a compression fracture of the spine. One or more vertebrae may need to be treated.

XLIF® Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

XLIF® Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Unlike traditional back surgery, XLIF® is performed through the patient’s side. By entering this way, major muscles of the back are avoided. This minimally-invasive procedure is generally used to treat leg or back pain caused by degenerative disc disease. It can be performed on an outpatient basis.

YESS Selective Endoscopic Discectomy™

YESS Selective Endoscopic Discectomy™
This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a small tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. The surgery is performed under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

Hip, Leg and Knee

Conditions

Anatomy of the Hip Joint

Anatomy of the Hip Joint
The hip joint is one of the largest weight-bearing joints in the body. This ball-and-socket joint allows the leg to move and rotate while keeping the body stable and balanced. Let’s take a closer look at the main parts of the hip joint’s anatomy.

Anatomy of the Knee

Anatomy of the Knee
The knee is the body’s largest joint. It’s the place where three bones meet: the tibia, the femur and the patella. The knee is a “hinge” joint. It allows the leg to bend in one direction only. Let’s take a closer look at the main parts of the knee’s anatomy.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries in Women

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries in Women
The anterior cruciate ligament, commonly called the ACL, is a thick, elastic band of tissue that runs from the bottom of the femur to the top of the tibia. It helps stabilize the knee joint. The ACL can become stretched or torn when the knee is twisted or hyperextended. For reasons that are not fully understood, ACL injuries are much more common in women than in men.

Avascular Necrosis (Osteonecrosis) of the Hip

Avascular Necrosis (Osteonecrosis) of the Hip
This is a weakening and collapse of the bone in the head of your femur. That’s the ball that fits in the socket of your hip. As this bone gradually dies and breaks apart, you can develop painful arthritis in your hip.

Bursitis of the Hip (Trochanteric Bursitis)

Bursitis of the Hip (Trochanteric Bursitis)
This is an irritation or swelling of the trochanteric bursa. This small, fluid-filled sac is found on the outer side of the femur. It acts as a cushion for the iliotibial band, a thick tendon in your leg.

Coccydynia

Coccydynia
This condition is an inflammation of the tip of the tailbone, called the coccyx. It causes pain and tenderness between the buttocks.

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
This is a type of chronic, long-lasting, pain. In most cases, it develops in an arm or a leg that you have previously injured. With CRPS, you may have unexplained pain that won’t go away. It may be severe, and it may spread.

Degenerative Joint Disease of the Hip (Osteoarthritis of the Hip)

Degenerative Joint Disease of the Hip (Osteoarthritis of the Hip)
This condition is a wearing away of cartilage in the hip joint caused by arthritis, which can develop because of trauma, infection, age or autoimmune disorders.

Hamstring Muscle Injuries

Hamstring Muscle Injuries
The hamstrings are three powerful muscles that travel along the back of your thigh. They are the semitendinosus, the semimembranosus and the biceps femoris muscles. They help bend your knee and extend your leg behind your body. Because these muscles handle high loads of stress, they are susceptible to stretching and tearing. This is called a muscle “strain.” Hamstring strains are common among runners, dancers, and athletes who play sports that require sudden starts and stops.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS)

Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS)
This condition is a painful inflammation of the iliotibial band, a thick, tendon-like portion of a muscle that travels from the hip down the outer side of the thigh to the knee. ITBS results in pain, aggravated by activity, that is usually felt on the outer side of the knee.

Inflammatory Arthritis of the Hip

Inflammatory Arthritis of the Hip
This is a type of arthritis that can affect people of all ages. It’s not the same as the most common form of arthritis, called “osteoarthritis.” That type commonly comes from wear and tear. Inflammatory arthritis can develop without any wear and tear at all.

Labral Tear of the Hip (Acetabular Labrum Tear)

Labral Tear of the Hip (Acetabular Labrum Tear)
If your hip joint hurts, or if it catches or clicks when you move your leg, you may have a torn labrum. That’s a rim of tissue that surrounds the hip’s socket. It helps to deepen the socket and cushion the joint. A torn labrum can keep the hip joint from working smoothly.

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Injury

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Injury
This is a stretching or tearing of a ligament on the outer side of your knee. The lateral collateral ligament, commonly called the “LCL”, connects the femur to the fibula. The LCL helps stabilize your knee. This ligament, along with the medial collateral ligament, helps prevent excessive side-to-side movement of your knee joint. It helps keep the upper and lower leg aligned properly.

Lumbar Radiculopathy (Sciatica)

Lumbar Radiculopathy (Sciatica)
This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Because these nerves travel to the hips, buttocks, legs and feet, an injury in the lumbar spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Sciatica may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the lumbar spinal column.

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injury

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injury
This is a stretching or tearing of a ligament on the inner side of your knee. The medial collateral ligament, commonly called the “MCL”, is connected to the femur and to the tibia. The MCL helps stabilize your knee. This ligament, along with the lateral collateral ligament, helps prevent excessive side-to-side movement of your knee joint. It helps keep the upper and lower leg aligned properly.

Meniscus Tear

Meniscus Tear
This is a common injury of the knee. Your knee joint is cushioned by two c-shaped wedges of cartilage called the “menisci.” Each individual cushion is called a “meniscus.” This injury is a tear of one of these cushions.

Muscle Strain Injuries of the Hip

Muscle Strain Injuries of the Hip
The hip is where the femur meets the pelvis. Several strong muscles are found here. They handle high loads of stress. They may suffer from overstretching and tearing. This is called a muscle “strain.” It’s a common injury among athletes who play sports that require sudden starts and stops.

Muscle Strain Injuries of the Thigh

Muscle Strain Injuries of the Thigh
Your thigh has groups of powerful muscles. The quadriceps, the adductors and the hamstring muscles handle high loads of stress. They may suffer from overstretching and tearing. This is called a muscle “strain.” It is a common injury among athletes who play sports that require sudden starts and stops.

Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Osgood-Schlatter Disease
This is a type of injury that causes knee pain in children. It’s an inflammation of a growth plate in the tibia. Growth plates are places where new bone tissue forms. They are found in the long bones of growing children. But growth plates are weaker than the surrounding bone. That makes them easier to injure.

Osteoarthritis of the Hip

Osteoarthritis of the Hip
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative arthritis, is a gradual breakdown of cartilage in the joints. Cartilage is a tough, flexible connective tissue that protects the ends of bones in the joints. Osteoarthritis is common in the hip because the hip bears the weight of the body. Osteoarthritis of the hip can severely impact a person’s lifestyle.

Osteoarthritis of the Knee

Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative arthritis, is a gradual breakdown of cartilage in the joints. Cartilage is a tough, flexible connective tissue that protects the ends of bones in the joints. Osteoarthritis is common in the knees because the knees bear the weight of the body. Osteoarthritis of the knee can severely impact a person’s lifestyle.

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee
This condition is characterized by the death of an area of cartilage and bone in the knee joint. The dead section may remain in place, forming a lesion, or it may loosen and partially detach from the surrounding bone. It may break away completely and float around inside the joint.

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar Tendinitis
This is a pain you feel just below your patella (the bone we commonly call the “kneecap”). It’s an injury to your patellar tendon, which connects the bottom of the kneecap to the shinbone.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
This is a pain you feel in the front of your knee. It involves the patella. That’s the bone we commonly call the “kneecap.” The patella slides up and down in a groove on your femur as you bend and extend your knee. If you have this syndrome, you may have injured the soft tissues that support and cushion your kneecap. Or, you may have some damage to the cartilage on the underside of the kneecap.

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy
This condition is a problem with the peripheral nervous system. These are the nerves that branch out from your brain and spinal cord and travel to all of the other parts of your body.

Phantom Pain

Phantom Pain
If you have lost a limb or another part of your body, you may feel painful sensations that seem to be coming from the missing part. This phenomenon is called “phantom pain.” It is common among amputees. It can become a chronic problem for some people.

Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis Syndrome
This is a pain and numbness you feel in your buttock and down the back of your leg. It involves the sciatic nerve. That’s a large nerve that travels from your lower spine down to your foot.

Post-Laminectomy Syndrome

Post-Laminectomy Syndrome
This condition, also called “failed back syndrome,” is a type of chronic pain. It can develop in some people after spine surgery.

Quadriceps Tendon Tear

Quadriceps Tendon Tear
This condition is a tear of the tendon that connects the patella to the quadriceps muscles of the thigh. The quadriceps muscle is used to straighten the leg from the bent position. A complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a disabling injury.

Sports Hernia

Sports Hernia
This is a strain or a tear of soft tissue. It often involves the muscles and tendons that travel from your lower abdomen to your pubic bone. A sports hernia does not create a hole in your abdominal wall. This injury can be difficult to diagnose, because it does not cause a bulge in your skin.

Transient Osteoporosis of the Hip

Transient Osteoporosis of the Hip
This is a sudden loss of bone density in the head of the femur. That’s the ball that fits into the socket of your pelvis to form the hip joint. With transient osteoporosis, the femur’s head weakens and your hip begins to hurt.

Procedures

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Biologics is a relatively new class of drugs that has proven beneficial for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, along with a wide range of other diseases. Rather than being created through chemistry, biologic drugs are produced by biological processes.

Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection

Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication through an opening in the sacrum. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. The injection takes only a few minutes to complete.

Cold Laser Therapy

Cold Laser Therapy
This technique uses laser light to promote the healing of injured tissues. It may be used to replace invasive procedures such as injections and surgery. In some cases, it may reduce the need for physical therapy.

Fascia Iliaca Block

Fascia Iliaca Block
This procedure is performed to block pain signals from traveling along the femoral nerve from the thigh or knee to the brain. It is commonly used to alleviate pain that can appear after certain leg surgeries such as total knee replacement.

Femoral Nerve Block

Femoral Nerve Block
If you’re having surgery on your leg, you may be given a femoral nerve block. It’s an injection that numbs the upper part of your leg. It can be used to block pain before and after surgery.

Fluoroscopic Guided Piriformis Injection

Fluoroscopic Guided Piriformis Injection
This injection procedure is performed to diagnose and relieve the pain of piriformis syndrome, an irritation of the sciatic nerve caused by a contraction of the piriformis muscle in the buttocks.

Fluoroscopic Guided Steroid Injection for Knee Pain

Fluoroscopic Guided Steroid Injection for Knee Pain
This non-operative, outpatient procedure is designed to provide relief for patients with arthritis of the knee. The technique allows the physician to inject an inflammation-reducing steroid with maximum accuracy.

Genicular Nerve Ablation (RF Neurotomy)

Genicular Nerve Ablation (RF Neurotomy)
During this outpatient procedure, the physician uses a radiofrequency device to heat up and disrupt the genicular nerves. These are the sensory nerves that transmit pain signals from the knee to the brain. Disrupting these pathways can provide long term relief from knee pain.

Genicular Nerve Block (G Block)

Genicular Nerve Block (G Block)
This outpatient procedure is an injection of anesthetic to the genicular nerves. These are the sensory nerves that transmit pain signals from the knee to the brain. Anesthetizing these nerves can disrupt the pain signals caused by degeneration of the knee. A genicular nerve block can provide temporary pain relief. It may help determine if a patient is a candidate for nerve ablation, which can provide long-term pain relief.

Hip Joint Injection

Hip Joint Injection
If you have pain in your hip, your doctor may inject medicine into your hip joint. It can help your doctor find where your pain is coming from. It can also make your hip feel better.

HYALGAN® Injection for Knee Pain (Fluoroscopic Guided)

HYALGAN® Injection for Knee Pain (Fluoroscopic Guided)
During this non-operative, outpatient procedure, the physician injects a pain relief medication called HYALGAN® into the knee joint. The HYALGAN will help the knee move smoothly, reducing or relieving the pain of osteoarthritis.

Joint Injection: Hip

Joint Injection: Hip
This outpatient injection procedure relieves hip, leg or buttock pain caused by arthritis or other damage to the hip joint.

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve low back and radiating leg pain. Steroid medication can reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by spinal conditions.

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection (without contrast)
This injection procedure is performed to relieve low back and radiating leg pain. Steroid medication can reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by spinal conditions.

Lumbar Sympathetic Block

Lumbar Sympathetic Block
This procedure is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your lower back. It helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to these nerves. Usually, a series of injections is needed to treat a problem.

Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. This procedure is performed to relieve pain in the lower back and pain that radiates from the back to the legs. The injection takes only a few minutes to complete.

Medial Branch Block

Medial Branch Block
This diagnostic procedure is performed to identify a painful facet joint. The facet joints are the joints between the vertebrae in the spine. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist.

Popliteal Fossa Block

Popliteal Fossa Block
This outpatient procedure numbs the lower leg with an injection of local anesthesia. Typically, it is used for surgery on the lower leg, ankle and foot.

Popliteal Nerve Catheter (Lateral Approach, Electric Stimulation)

Popliteal Nerve Catheter (Lateral Approach, Electric Stimulation)
During this procedure, a catheter is inserted behind the knee so that the lower branches of the sciatic nerve can be bathed in a continuous flow of anesthetic solution. Typically, it is used to numb the leg for surgery on the lower leg, ankle and foot and to manage pain following surgery.

Popliteal Nerve Catheter (Lateral Approach, Ultrasound-guided)

Popliteal Nerve Catheter (Lateral Approach, Ultrasound-guided)
During this procedure, a catheter is inserted behind the knee so that the lower branches of the sciatic nerve can be bathed in a continuous flow of anesthetic solution. Typically, it is used to numb the leg for surgery on the lower leg, ankle and foot and to manage pain following surgery.

Popliteal Nerve Catheter (Posterior Approach, Electric Stimulation)

Popliteal Nerve Catheter (Posterior Approach, Electric Stimulation)
During this procedure, a catheter is inserted behind the knee so that the lower branches of the sciatic nerve can be bathed in a continuous flow of anesthetic solution. Typically, it is used to numb the leg for surgery on the lower leg, ankle and foot and to manage pain following surgery.

Popliteal Nerve Catheter (Posterior Approach, Ultrasound-guided)

Popliteal Nerve Catheter (Posterior Approach, Ultrasound-guided)
During this procedure, a catheter is inserted behind the knee so that the lower branches of the sciatic nerve can be bathed in a continuous flow of anesthetic solution. Typically, it is used to numb the leg for surgery on the lower leg, ankle and foot and to manage pain following surgery.

Prolotherapy Treatment for Chronic Knee Pain

Prolotherapy Treatment for Chronic Knee Pain
This non-surgical procedure relieves chronic knee pain with an injection that promotes the natural healing of damaged joints and soft tissues.

PRP Therapy for Chronic Knee Pain

PRP Therapy for Chronic Knee Pain
If you have pain in your knee, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your knee feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Chronic Knee Pain (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy for Chronic Knee Pain (AcCELLerated Biologics)
If you have pain in your knee, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your knee feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Hip Arthritis

PRP Therapy for Hip Arthritis
If you have arthritis in your hip, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your hip feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Hip Arthritis (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy for Hip Arthritis (AcCELLerated Biologics)
If you have arthritis in your hip, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your hip feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Knee Arthritis

PRP Therapy for Knee Arthritis
If you have arthritis in your knee, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your knee feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Knee Arthritis (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy for Knee Arthritis (AcCELLerated Biologics)
If you have arthritis in your knee, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your knee feel better and work better.

RACZ Caudal Neurolysis

RACZ Caudal Neurolysis
This injection, generally performed as an outpatient procedure under local anesthesia, relieves low back and leg pain most often caused by scarring from a prior back surgery. The procedure is performed with the patient lying face down with a cushion placed under the stomach.

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Lumbar Facets

Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Lumbar Facets
During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your lower back. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn’t respond to medications or to physical therapy.

Sacroiliac Joint Steroid Injection

Sacroiliac Joint Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve pain caused by arthritis in the sacroiliac joint where the spine and hip bone meet. The steroid medication can reduce swelling and inflammation in the joint.

Sciatic Nerve Block (Posterior Approach, Electric Stimulation)

Sciatic Nerve Block (Posterior Approach, Electric Stimulation)
This procedure is an injection of anesthesia (or an anesthetic/steroid mixture) around the sciatic nerve. It can be used to block the pain of surgery on the knee, leg ankle or foot, or it can be used to manage the pain of chronic issues in the lower extremity.

Sciatic Nerve Block (Posterior Approach, Ultrasound-guided)

Sciatic Nerve Block (Posterior Approach, Ultrasound-guided)
This procedure is an injection of anesthesia (or an anesthetic/steroid mixture) around the sciatic nerve. It can be used to block the pain of surgery on the knee, leg ankle or foot, or it can be used to manage the pain of chronic issues in the lower extremity.

Spinal Anesthesia for Hip and Lower Extremity

Spinal Anesthesia for Hip and Lower Extremity
This procedure uses an injection of anesthesia to numb the hips and lower extremities in preparation for a medical procedure. The patient remains awake and alert, and still has the ability to offer feedback to the operating physician.

Spinal Epidural for Hip and Lower Extremity

Spinal Epidural for Hip and Lower Extremity
This procedure uses an injection of anesthesia to numb the hips and lower extremities in preparation for a medical procedure. The patient remains awake and alert, and still has the ability to offer feedback to the operating physician.

Stem Cell Therapy for Avascular Necrosis of the Hip

Stem Cell Therapy for Avascular Necrosis of the Hip
This minimially-invasive procedure is used to treat avascular necrosis of the hip (the death of bone tissue from lack of blood) with an injection of stem cells drawn from the patient’s pelvis. The stem cells promote the natural healing of the necrotic bone tissue.

Stem Cell Therapy for Knee Pain

Stem Cell Therapy for Knee Pain
If you have injured your knee, or if normal wear and tear has caused degeneration of your joint, stem cell therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help repair knee damage. It may help you avoid surgery.

Stem Cell Therapy for Nonunion Fracture of the Tibia

Stem Cell Therapy for Nonunion Fracture of the Tibia
This minimially-invasive procedure is used to treat a fracture of the tibia that has failed to heal after several months with an injection of stem cells drawn from the patient’s pelvis. The stem cells promote the natural healing of the fracture.

Ultrasound-Guided Ilioinguinal Nerve Block

Ultrasound-Guided Ilioinguinal Nerve Block
This non-operative, outpatient procedure is designed to provide relief for patients with hip and lower abdominal pain. The technique allows the physician to inject an inflammation-reducing steroid around the ilioinguinal nerve with maximum accuracy.

Ultrasound-Guided Injection for Knee Pain

Ultrasound-Guided Injection for Knee Pain
This non-operative, outpatient procedure is designed to provide relief for patients with arthritis of the knee. The technique allows the physician to inject an inflammation-reducing steroid with maximum accuracy.

Viscosupplementation for Arthritis of the Knee

Viscosupplementation for Arthritis of the Knee
This is an injection of medicine into the knee joint. It lubricates your knee so the bones can glide smoothly. It can help lessen the pain of arthritis.

Shoulder

Conditions

Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Arthritis

Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Arthritis
This condition, also called AC joint arthrosis, is a degeneration of the joint at the top of the shoulder where the acromion meets the clavicle.

Anatomy of the Shoulder

Anatomy of the Shoulder
The shoulder is a complex structure made of three separate joints. They work together to give the shoulder a tremendous range of motion. Let’s take a closer look at the main parts of the shoulder’s anatomy.

Biceps Tendonitis

Biceps Tendonitis
This is a problem with a tendon in your shoulder. Most often, it’s the “long head of biceps” tendon. It travels from the front of your upper arm to the top of your shoulder socket. With this condition, the tendon becomes painfully inflamed or irritated.

Burners and Stingers

Burners and Stingers
These are warm or painful sensations caused by an injury to the brachial plexus. This is a network of nerves that passes through your shoulder. They travel down your arm and to your hand.

Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis)

Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis)
This is stiffening of your shoulder. It happens over time, and you may not know what caused it. With a frozen shoulder, it can be hard for you to be as active as you like.

Glenoid Labrum Tear

Glenoid Labrum Tear
If you have pain in your shoulder, you may have a torn labrum. That’s the thick band of tissue that goes around your shoulder socket. It helps make the socket deeper. It cushions the bone of your upper arm and keeps it from slipping.

Muscle Strain of the Upper Back (Trapezius Strain)

Muscle Strain of the Upper Back (Trapezius Strain)
This common injury is a stretching or tearing of the trapezius. This large muscle group spans the upper back, shoulders and neck. These muscles are commonly called the “trap” muscles.

Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder

Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative arthritis, is a gradual breakdown of cartilage in the joints. Cartilage is a tough, flexible connective tissue that protects the ends of bones in the joints. Osteoarthritis of the shoulder can severely impact a person’s lifestyle.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Shoulder

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Shoulder
Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease of the immune system. This is the system that protects you from infection. RA may cause pain and stiffness in your shoulder where the humerus (the bone of the upper arm) meets the shoulder socket. It can also affect the joint where your clavicle meets your scapula.

Rotator Cuff Injuries

Rotator Cuff Injuries
The rotator cuff muscles and tendons hold your upper arm bone in your shoulder socket. A hard fall, repetitive arm motions or problems with the structure of your shoulder can injure the rotator cuff.

Rotator Cuff Tear

Rotator Cuff Tear
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons in each shoulder. It holds your upper arm bone in your shoulder socket. It keeps your arm stable while allowing it to lift and rotate. Too much stress on the rotator cuff can cause a tear. This can be a painful injury.

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome
This is a painful pinching of soft tissues in your shoulder. It happens when these tissues rub and press against a part of your shoulder blade called the “acromion.” This can irritate your rotator cuff tendons, and also a soft sac called the “subacromial bursa.”

Suprascapular Neuropathy

Suprascapular Neuropathy
This is a pain or weakness from an irritated nerve in your shoulder. It’s called the “suprascapular” nerve. It travels from the neck down through your shoulder.

Procedures

Axillary Brachial Plexus Block

Axillary Brachial Plexus Block
This outpatient procedure numbs the arm and hand with an injection of local anesthetic. Typically, it is used before or after surgery on the elbow, forearm or hand.

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Biologics Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Biologics is a relatively new class of drugs that has proven beneficial for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, along with a wide range of other diseases. Rather than being created through chemistry, biologic drugs are produced by biological processes.

Brachial Plexus Block (Infraclavicular Approach, Electric Stimulation)

Brachial Plexus Block (Infraclavicular Approach, Electric Stimulation)
This procedure is an injection of anesthesia (or an anesthetic/steroid mixture) around the brachial plexus, a network of nerve fibers that travels from the spine to the arm. This procedure can be used to block the pain of surgery on the shoulder, arm or hand, or it can be used to manage the pain of chronic issues such as arthritis.

Brachial Plexus Block (Infraclavicular Approach, Ultrasound-guided)

Brachial Plexus Block (Infraclavicular Approach, Ultrasound-guided)
This procedure is an injection of anesthesia (or an anesthetic/steroid mixture) around the brachial plexus, a network of nerve fibers that travels from the spine to the arm. This procedure can be used to block the pain of surgery on the shoulder, arm or hand, or it can be used to manage the pain of chronic issues such as arthritis.

Brachial Plexus Block (Supraclavicular Approach, Electric Stimulation)

Brachial Plexus Block (Supraclavicular Approach, Electric Stimulation)
This procedure is an injection of anesthesia (or an anesthetic/steroid mixture) around the brachial plexus, a network of nerve fibers that travels from the spine to the arm. This procedure can be used to block the pain of surgery on the shoulder, arm or hand, or it can be used to manage the pain of chronic issues such as arthritis.

Brachial Plexus Block (Supraclavicular Approach, Ultrasound-guided)

Brachial Plexus Block (Supraclavicular Approach, Ultrasound-guided)
This procedure is an injection of anesthesia (or an anesthetic/steroid mixture) around the brachial plexus, a network of nerve fibers that travels from the spine to the arm. This procedure can be used to block the pain of surgery on the shoulder, arm or hand, or it can be used to manage the pain of chronic issues such as arthritis.

Cold Laser Therapy

Cold Laser Therapy
This technique uses laser light to promote the healing of injured tissues. It may be used to replace invasive procedures such as injections and surgery. In some cases, it may reduce the need for physical therapy.

Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block

Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block
This is an injection of anesthetic into a network of nerves called the brachial plexus. The injection numbs your shoulder and arm. It can block the pain of shoulder surgery.

Intracapsular (Glenoid) Injection

Intracapsular (Glenoid) Injection
During this procedure, a mixture of anesthesia and anti-inflammatory medication is injected into the space between the head of the humerus and the glenoid. This injection can be used to treat a variety of painful conditions, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and adhesive capsulitis. The physician may choose an injection site on the front, side or rear of the shoulder.

Joint Injection (Therapeutic, Shoulder)

Joint Injection (Therapeutic, Shoulder)
This outpatient injection procedure relieves pain in the shoulder and arm caused by arthritis, injury or disorder.

PRP Therapy for Shoulder Pain

PRP Therapy for Shoulder Pain
If you have shoulder pain, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your shoulder feel better and work better.

PRP Therapy for Shoulder Pain (AcCELLerated Biologics)

PRP Therapy for Shoulder Pain (AcCELLerated Biologics)
If you have shoulder pain, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your shoulder feel better and work better.

Soft Tissue Injection: Shoulder

Soft Tissue Injection: Shoulder
This outpatient injection procedure relieves pain in the shoulder caused by bursitis, or inflammation of the bursa. A bursa is a small, fluid-filled sac that reduces friction between bone and muscles or tendons. Bursae are found near joints throughout the body.

Subacromial Injection

Subacromial Injection
This injection goes into your shoulder. It can help reduce your shoulder pain. We use it to treat many conditions. It’s used for adhesive capsulitis, rotator cuff tendinosis and impingement syndrome.

Suprascapular Nerve Block (Fluoroscopically Guided)

Suprascapular Nerve Block (Fluoroscopically Guided)
This outpatient procedure is used to treat pain and discomfort from arthritis, bursitis or impingement of the suprascapular nerve in the shoulder joint. The suprascapular nerve is a major motor nerve that serves the muscles of the shoulder.

Trigger Point Injections

Trigger Point Injections
This outpatient procedure is designed to reduce or relieve the pain of trigger points. These small, tender knots can form in muscles or in the fascia (the soft, stretchy connective tissue that surrounds muscles and organs). The trigger point injection procedure takes only a few minutes to complete.

Ultrasound-Guided Injection for Shoulder Pain

Ultrasound-Guided Injection for Shoulder Pain
This non-operative, outpatient procedure is designed to provide relief for patients with pain in the shoulder from conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and adhesive capsulitis. The technique allows the physician to inject an inflammation-reducing steroid with maximum accuracy.